1997 - 2000

Pfefferbaum, B.  (1997). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: A review of the past ten years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(11): 1503-1511 (invited). Reprinted in Reviews in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (pp. 118-125), M. K. Dulcan (Ed.). American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1998.

Nixon, S.J., Vincent, R., Krug, R.S., and Pfefferbaum, B. (1998). Structure and organization of research efforts following the bombing of the Murrah building. Journal of Personal and Interpersonal Loss, 3:99-115.


Geis, H.K., Whittlesey, S.W., McDonald, N.B., Smith, K., and Pfefferbaum, B. (1998). Bereavement and loss in childhood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(1):73-85 (invited).


Pfefferbaum, B., and Allen, J.R. (1998). Stress in children exposed to violence: Reenactment and rage. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(1):121-135 (invited).


Allen, J.R., and Pfefferbaum, B. (1998). What if Astyanax had survived? War, children and youth. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(1):137-151 (invited).


Pfefferbaum, B., and Pfefferbaum, R.L. (1998). Contagion in stress:  An infectious disease model for posttraumatic stress in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(1):183-194, 1998. (Invited)


Tucker, P., Dickson, W., Pfefferbaum, B., McDonald, N.B., and Allen, G. (1997). Traumatic reactions as predictors of posttraumatic stress six months after the Oklahoma City bombing. Psychiatric Services, 48(9):1191-1194.


Tucker, P., Pfefferbaum, B., Vincent, R., Boehler, S., and Nixon, S.J. (1998). Oklahoma City: Disaster challenges, mental health and medical administrators. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 25(1):93-99.


Pfefferbaum, B. Caring for children affected by disaster. (1998). Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(3):579-597, 1998.


Allen, S. F., Dlugokinski, E. L., Cohen, L. A., & Walker, J. L. (1999). Assessing impact and assisting in healing with children following a traumatic community event. Psychiatric Annals, 29(2), 93-98.


Tucker, P., Pfefferbaum, B., Nixon, S.J. and Foy, D.W. (1999). Trauma and recovery among adults highly exposed to a community disaster. Psychiatric Annals, 29(2):78-83. (Invited)


Allen, J.R., Whittlesey, S., Pfefferbaum, B., and Ondersma, M. (1999). Community and coping of mothers and grandmothers of children killed in a human-caused disaster. Psychiatric Annals, 29(2):85-91. (Invited)

Reprinted in: Therapeutic Journey: Practice and Life (pp. 427-436), J. R. Allen and B. A. Allen (Eds.). Oakland CA: TA Press, 2005.

Pfefferbaum, B., Flynn, B.W., Brandt, E.N., Jr., and Lensgraf, S.J. (1999). Organizing the mental health response to human-caused community disasters with reference to the Oklahoma City bombing. Psychiatric Annals, 29(2):109-113, 1999. (Invited)

Pfefferbaum, B., Moore, V.L., McDonald, N.B., Maynard, B.T., Gurwitch, R.H., and Nixon, S.J. (1999). The role of exposure in posttraumatic stress in youths following the 1995 bombing. Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, 92(4):164-167. (Invited)

Call, J.A., and Pfefferbaum, B. (1999). Lessons from the first two years of Project Heartland, Oklahoma’s mental health response to the 1995 bombing. Psychiatric Services, 50(7):953-955.

Pfefferbaum, B., Call, J.A., and Sconzo, G.M. (1999). Mental health services for children in the first two years after the 1995 Oklahoma City terrorist bombing. Psychiatric Services, 50(7):956-958.

Pfefferbaum, B., Nawaz, S., and Kearns, L.J. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children: Implications for assessment, prevention, and referral in primary care. Journal of the Oklahoma State Medical Association, 92(7):309-315.

Pfefferbaum, B., Nixon, S.J., Krug, R.S., Tivis, R.D., Moore, V.L., Brown, J.M., Pynoos, R.S., Foy, D., and Gurwitch, R.H. (1999). Clinical needs assessment of middle and high school students following the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(7):1069-1074.

Pfefferbaum, B., Nixon, S.J., Tucker, P.M., Tivis, R.D., Moore, V.L., Gurwitch, R.H., Pynoos, R.S., and Geis, H.K. (1999). Posttraumatic stress responses in bereaved children after the Oklahoma City bombing.  Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(11):1372-1379.

Pfefferbaum, B., Nixon, S.J., Tucker, P.M., Vincent, R.D., North, C.S., Allen, J.R., and Whittlesey, S.W. (1999). Consequences of the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995. Russian Journal of Psychiatry, 5:26-30. (Invited)

Pfefferbaum, B., Allen, J.R., Lindsey, E.D., and Whittlesey, S.W. (1999). Fabricated trauma exposure: An analysis of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional factors. Psychiatry, 62:293-302.

Whittlesey, S.W., Allen, J.R., Bell, B.D., Lindsey, E.D., Speed, L.F., Lucas, A.F., Ware, M.M., Allen, S.F., and Pfefferbaum, B. (1999). Avoidance in trauma: Conscious and unconscious defense, pathology, and health. Psychiatry, 62:303-312. Also appeared as an Internet article at http://www.sipsot.it/emergenza/avoidance.html, Societe Italiana di Psicologia dei Servizi Ospedalieri e Territoriali, Urbina, Italy, (SIPSOT), 2000.

Pfefferbaum, B., Gurwitch, R.H., McDonald, N.B., Leftwich, M.J.T., Sconzo, G.M., Messenbaugh, A.K., and Schultz, R.A. (2000). Posttraumatic stress among young children after the death of a friend or acquaintance in a terrorist bombing. Psychiatric Services, 51(3):386-388.

Allen, J.R., Pfefferbaum, B., Hammond, D., and Speed, L. (2000). Dsturbed child’s use of a public event:  Cotard’s Syndrome in a ten-year-old. Psychiatry, 63(2):208-213.Reprinted in: Therapeutic Journey: Practice and Life (pp. 118-123), J. R. Allen and B. A. Allen (Eds.). Oakland, CA: TA Press, 2005.

Tucker, P., Pfefferbaum, B., Nixon, S.J., and Dickson, W. (2000). Predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms in Oklahoma City: Exposure, social support, peri-traumatic responses. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 27(4):406-416.

Pfefferbaum, B., Seale, T.W., McDonald, N.B., Brandt, E.N., Jr., Rainwater, S.M., Maynard, B.T., Meierhoefer, B., and Miller, P.D. (2000). Posttraumatic stress two years after the Oklahoma City bombing in youths geographically distant from the explosion. Psychiatry, 63(4):358-370.